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Mark B. Kristal, Ph.D.

Ph.D., Kansas State University
B71 Park Hall
(716) 645-0262

Personally Maintained Websites:
                                  Google Scholar

Summary of Research Interests

Physiological bases of motivated behavior (especially reproduction and ingestion); neural and endocrine basis of maternal behavior in mammals; functions of the hypothalamus; opioid systems and maternal behavior, parturition, and antinociception; causes and consequences of placentophagia.


Representative Publications

  • DiPirro, J.M. & Kristal, M.B. (2004). Placenta ingestion by rats enhances κ- and δ-opioid antinociception, but suppresses µ-opioid antinociception. Brain Research, 1014, 22-33.
  • Thompson, A.C.; Kristal, M.B.; Salaj, A.; Acheson, A.; Martin, L.B. & Martin, T. (2004). Analgesic efficacy of oral buprenorphine in rats: Methodological considerations. Comparative Medicine, 54, 293-300.
  • Kristal, M.B. (2009).The biopsychology of maternal behavior in nonhuman mammals. ILAR Journal, 50, 51-63. (Invited article)
  • Curtin, L.I.; Grakowsky, J.A.; Suarez, M; Thompson, A.C.; DiPirro, J.M.; Martin, L.B.E. & Kristal, M.B. (2009). Evaluation of buprenorphine in a post-operative pain model in rats. Comparative Medicine, 59, 60-71.
  • Neumann, A; Hoey, R.F.; Daigler, L.B.; Thompson, A.C. & Kristal, M.B. (2009).  Ingestion of amniotic fluid enhances the facilitative effect of VTA morphine on the onset of maternal behavior in virgin rats. Brain Research, 1261, 29-36.
  • Hoey, R.F.; Hurley, S.W.; Daniels, D. & Kristal, M.B. (2011). Effect of amniotic-fluid ingestion on vaginal-cervical-stimulation-induced Fos expression in female rats during estrus. Brain Research, 1376, 51-59.
  • Kristal, M.B.; DiPirro, J.M. & Thompson, A.C. (2012). Placentophagia in humans and nonhuman mammals: Causes and consequences. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 51, 177-197. (Invited article)
  • Kristal, M.B. (2012). “Placenta: To Eat or Not to Eat?” The Huffington Post, September 17, 2012. (Invited article)



Fellow, International Behavioral Neuroscience Society
Elected USA Councilor, International Behavioral Neuroscience Society, 2010-2013